After , the serious environmental damage of beehive coking attracted national notice, although the damage had plagued the district for decades. Lauck of the U. Immigration Commission in By night the scene is rendered indescribably vivid by these numerous burning pits. The beehive ovens make the entire region of coke manufacture one of dulled sky: cheerless and unhealthful.
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The industrial production of coke from coal is called coking. The non-volatile residue of the decomposition is mostly carbon, in the form of a hard somewhat glassy solid that cements together the original coal particles and minerals. Some facilities have "by-product" coking ovens in which the volatile decomposition products are collected, purified and separated for use in other industries, as fuel or chemical feedstocks.
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Otherwise the volatile byproducts are burned to heat the coking ovens. This is an older method, but is still being used for new construction. Bituminous coal must meet a set of criteria for use as coking coal, determined by particular coal assay techniques. These include moisture content, ash content, sulfur content, volatile content, tar , and plasticity. This blending is targeted at producing a coke of appropriate strength generally measured by coke strength after reaction , while losing an appropriate amount of mass.
Other blending considerations include ensuring the coke doesn't swell too much during production and destroy the coke oven through excessive wall pressures. The greater the volatile matter in coal, the more by-product can be produced.
Thus different types of coal are proportionally blended to reach acceptable levels of volatility before the coking process begins. Coking coal is different from thermal coal, but it differs not by the coal forming process. Coking coal has different macerals from thermal coal.
Based on the ash percentage coking coal can be divided into various grades. These grades are:. The different macerals are related to source of material that compose the coal. However, the coke is of wildly varying strength and ash content and is generally considered unsellable except in some cases as a thermal product. As it has lost its volatile matter, it has lost the ability to be coked again.
The "hearth" process of coke-making, using lump coal, was akin to that of charcoal-burning; instead of a heap of prepared wood, covered with twigs, leaves and earth, there was a heap of coals, covered with coke dust. The hearth process continued to be used in many areas during the first half of the 19th century, but two events greatly lessened its importance. These were the invention of the hot blast in iron-smelting and the introduction of the beehive coke oven. The use of a blast of hot air, instead of cold air, in the smelting furnace was first introduced by Neilson in Scotland in A fire brick chamber shaped like a dome is used, commonly known as a beehive oven.
It is typically 4 meters The roof has a hole for charging the coal or other kindling from the top. The discharging hole is provided in the circumference of the lower part of the wall. In a coke oven battery, a number of ovens are built in a row with common walls between neighboring ovens. A battery consisted of a great many ovens, sometimes hundreds, in a row. Air is supplied initially to ignite the coal. Carbonization starts and produces volatile matter, which burns inside the partially closed side door.
Carbonization proceeds from top to bottom and is completed in two to three days. Heat is supplied by the burning volatile matter so no by-products are recovered. The exhaust gases are allowed to escape to the atmosphere.
The hot coke is quenched with water and discharged, manually through the side door. The walls and roof retain enough heat to initiate carbonization of the next charge. When coal was burned in a coke oven, the impurities of the coal not already driven off as gases accumulated to form slag, which was effectively a conglomeration of the removed impurities. Since it was not the desired coke product, slag was initially nothing more than an unwanted by-product and was discarded.
Later, however, it was found to have many beneficial uses and has since been used as an ingredient in brick-making, mixed cement, granule-covered shingles, and even as a fertilizer. People can be exposed to coke oven emissions in the workplace by inhalation, skin contact, or eye contact. Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Coke is commonly used as fuel for blacksmithing.
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Coke was used in Australia in the s and early s for house heating. Since smoke -producing constituents are driven off during the coking of coal, coke forms a desirable fuel for stoves and furnaces in which conditions are not suitable for the complete burning of bituminous coal itself. Coke may be combusted producing little or no smoke, while bituminous coal would produce much smoke. Coke was widely used as a substitute for coal in domestic heating following the creation of smokeless zones in the United Kingdom. Highland Park distillery in Orkney roasts malted barley for use in their Scotch whisky in kilns burning a mixture of coke and peat.
Coke may be used to make synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Wastewater from coking is highly toxic and carcinogenic. It contains phenolic, aromatic, heterocyclic, and polycyclic organics, and inorganics including cyanides, sulfides, ammonium and ammonia. The bulk specific gravity of coke is typically around 0.
It is highly porous.
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The most important properties of coke are ash and sulfur content, which are dependent on the coal used for production. Coke with less ash and sulfur content is highly priced on the market. Other important characteristics are the M10, M25, and M40 test crush indexes, which convey the strength of coke during transportation into the blast furnaces; depending on blast furnaces size, finely crushed coke pieces must not be allowed into the blast furnaces because they would impede the flow of gas through the charge of iron and coke.
A related characteristic is the Coke Strength After Reaction CSR index; it represents coke's ability to withstand the violent conditions inside the blast furnace before turning into fine particles. The water content in coke is practically zero at the end of the coking process, but it is often water quenched so that it can be transported to the blast furnaces.
get link In more modern coke plants an advanced method of coke cooling uses air quenching. See Section "Production". The solid residue remaining from refinement of petroleum by the " cracking " process is also a form of coke.
Petroleum coke has many uses besides being a fuel, such as the manufacture of dry cells and of electrolytic and welding electrodes. Gas works manufacturing syngas also produce coke as an end product, called gas house coke. Fluid coking is a process which converts heavy residual crude into lighter products such as naphtha , kerosene , heating oil , and hydrocarbon gases. The "fluid" term refers to the fact that solid coke particles behave as a fluid solid in the continuous fluid coking process versus the older batch delayed-coking process where a solid mass of coke builds up in the coke drum over time.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about fuel coke derived from coal. Liz Taylor knows it, the President knows it, the bum knows it, and you know it. It seems that the Coca-Cola company knows that too. Andy liked Coca-Cola partly because it allowed him to set himself apart from others in the art world: the Abstract Expressionists. Coca Cola 1 by Andy Warhol.
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