Calculating the Weather: Meteorology in the 20th Century (International Geophysics)

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Weather Bureau in the Department of Agriculture. A weather-sensitive sports event of that year: 15th running of the Kentucky Derby. Dyrenforth to carry out rain-making experiments by setting off explosions from balloons in the air. Weather Bureau becomes responsible for issuing flood warnings to the public; Telegraphic reports of stages of rivers were made at 26 places on the Mississippi and its tributaries, the Savannah and Potomac Rivers.

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Professor Mark W. Harrington becomes the first chief of the Weather Bureau. He serves until Moore served until his resignation in September, A devastating hurricane strikes Galveston, Texas, killing more than 6, people. The wife of the Galveston Official-in-Charge Isaac Cline and one Weather Bureau employee and his wife are killed in the associated flooding. The Weather Bureau forecasts the storm four days earlier, but not the high tide.

The one disadvantage to the system was the mail carriers started their routes about a.

The Weather Bureau begins collecting flood damage statistics nationally. Rogers, in 87 hours and 4 minutes, air time, over a period of 18 days. Marvin serves as the new chief of the Weather Bureau, replacing Professor Moore. Marvin serves until his retirement in The Weather Bureau's fire district forecast center started at Medford, Oregon.

First Transatlantic flight by U. Navy sea plane, with stops in Newfoundland, Azores and Lisbon. Charles Lindbergh flies alone from Long Island, non-stop, to Paris.

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The 3, mile trip is completed in As on his earlier transcontinental flight, he consulted the Weather Bureau in planning this flight. However, Lindbergh didn't wait for the final confirmation of good weather over the Atlantic. When Weather Bureau officials in New York heard that Lindbergh had left, they expressed surprise because the forecasts indicated that the flight should have been delayed by at least 12 hours. Indeed, Lindbergh ran into problems with fog and rain — as the Weather Bureau had predicted. This program spells the demise of "kite stations.

Roosevelt that the work of the volunteer Cooperative Observer Program is one of the most extraordinary services ever developed, netting the public more benefits per dollar expended than any other government service in the world. By the network encompasses more than 11, stations. Willis L. Gregg is named chief of the Weather Bureau, replacing Professor Marvin. He served as chief until his death in The Smithsonian Institution begins making long-range weather forecasts based on solar cycles; floating automatic weather instruments mounted on buoys begin collecting marine weather data.

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Climatology as a Profession

This program spells the end for aircraft soundings since balloons average only 50, feet altitude. Twelve pilots die flying weather missions.


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January flood on the Ohio River is the greatest ever experienced, with Ohio River levels exceeding all previous. Cincinnati's 80 foot crest and Louisville's Seventy percent of Louisville under water, , of its residents flee their homes; the entire city of Paducah, Kentucky, population 40, is evacuated. Roosevelt appoints Dr.

Effects of irrigation on global climate during the 20th century

Francis W. Reichelderfer chief of the Weather Bureau.

Modeling the Earth's Climate System: From Petascale to Exascale

Both the Army and Navy establish weather centers. President Roosevelt orders Coast Guard to man ocean weather stations. Helmut Landsberg, the "Father of Climatology," writes the first edition of his elementary textbook entitled, Physical Climatology. Two women are listed among the ranks of observers and forecasters in the Weather Bureau.

The Navy gives the Weather Bureau 25 surplus aircraft radars to be modified for ground meteorological use, marking the start of a weather radar system in the U. Navy aerologists play key role as U. A cooperative thunderstorm research effort is undertaken by the Weather Bureau, military services, and the University of Chicago. Princeton's Institute for Advanced Studies begins research into use of a computer for weather forecasting. Chicago Weather Bureau office demonstrates use of facsimile for map transmission.

Truck-mounted campers first used as mobile forecast stations in major forest fires. World Meteorological Organization established by the U. This will become a twice daily routine in , using an IBM Regularly-scheduled operational computer forecasts begun by the Joint Numerical Forecast Unit. The Weather Bureau becomes a pioneer civilian user of computers along with the Census Bureau in Commerce; Bureau begins development of Barotropic model, a first for numerical predictions.

Weather Bureau Chief Dr. Francis Reichelderfer accepts a proposal by Dr. James Brantly of Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories to modify surplus Navy Doppler radars for severe storms observation--the first endeavor to measure motion of precipitation particles by radar. This satellite discovers the Van Allen Radiation Belts. The Thomas Jefferson and John Campanius Holm awards are created by the Weather Bureau to honor volunteer observers for unusual and outstanding accomplishments in the field of meteorological observations.

Both awards still exist today. In cooperation with the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Weather Bureau meteorologists issue first advisories on air pollution potential over the eastern United States. The Weather Bureau assumes full responsibility for severe weather forecasting, establishing the National Severe Storms Center in Kansas City; special training begins for Federal Aviation Authority employees to equip them to brief pilots as part of a joint FAA-Bureau program; to USAF Air Weather Service issues first official forecast of clear air turbulence; scientists from 27 countries attend NASA Weather Bureau sponsored international workshop on technique to interpret weather satellite data.

Robert M.

Calculating the Weather: Meteorology in the 20th Century

White succeeds Dr. Reichelderfer as chief of the Weather Bureau. The polar-orbiting weather satellite TIROS III is launched with automatic picture transmission capability, eventually to provide continuous cloud images to over nations. Kenneth T. Cheng, head of the Taiwan Weather Service, who had been indicted for an incorrect typhoon forecast. The AMS points out that if forecasters were indicted for an incorrect forecast there could soon be a total lack of forecasters.

Robert White is appointed as its first administrator. George Cressman is named chief of the Weather Bureau and becomes the first director of the National Weather Service, when the agency is renamed in He serves until his retirement in The National Meteorological Center introduces a computer numerical model capable of making sea level predictions as accurate as those made manually. Fire weather forecasts are extended to cover contiguous U. Robert White assuming the role of its first administrator. The U. Weather Bureau becomes the National Weather Service.

A devastating flash flood in the Black Hills of South Dakota kills people. Richard Hallgren is appointed director of the National Weather Services. He serves until his retirement in , when he becomes executive director of the American Meteorological Society.


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  • AFOS is the most ambitious computer network created at the time, setting records for volume of data and number of entry points while supporting full range of word processing and other capabilities. Helens, a dormant volcano in Washington state, erupts; weather satellites spot eruption and alert FAA. Edward H. Stoll had faithfully served as a Cooperative Observer since October 10, Weather-related event: First successful solo balloon crossing of the Atlantic by pilot Joe Kittinger, 83 hours and 45 minutes.

    These mobile fire units are deployed nationwide in ATMUs permit NWS forecasters to set up remote observing and forecasting offices anywhere in the world within hours of a request for on-site fire weather support. President Ronald Reagan awards Dr. Helmet Landsberg the National Medal of Science, the most prestigious service award a civilian can receive. The National Hurricane Center provides continuous advisories and early forecast on movement of giant hurricane Gilbert to assist Caribbean and U. Elbert W. Eight year national plan for the modernization and restructuring of the National Weather Service is announced.

    Of a programmed 1, ASOS units, were installed and 13 commissioned.

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    Commerce Department's highest award, a gold medal, for performance during the flooding. AWIPS will rapidly analyze weather data and distribute it nationwide. The th new Doppler weather radar is installed. The blizzard of '93 deposited enough precipitation in one weekend to drastically change the spring hydrologic outlook.

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