ADA Brigade Fires in the Operations Process The Operations Process Fires and Targeting D3A Fires Planning Air Defense Planning Sustainment Warfighting Function Personnel Services Health Service Support Sustainment Overview Sustainment of Unified Land Operations Strategic Context Joint Interdependence Army Sustainment Responsibilities Army Title 10 Sustainment Requirements Executive Agent EA Lead Service Joint Command for Logistics Generating Forces Operating Forces Intergovernmental and Interagency Coordination Sustainment in Multinational Operations Joint Logistics Sustainment of Decisive Action Theater Opening Theater Closing Freedom of Action Sustainment Preparation Sustainment Execution Transportation Operations Field Services Operational Contract Support General Engineering Support Human Resources Support Financial Management Legal Support Religious Support Band Support Casualty Care Medical Evacuation Medical Logistics Protection Warfighting Function The Role of Protection Protection Integration in the Operations Process Protection Supporting Tasks Supporting Tasks Conduct Operational Area Security Provide Intelligence Support to Protection Apply Antiterrorism AT Measures Implement Physical Security Procedures Conduct Law and Order Operations Conduct Survivability Operations Provide Force Health Protection Coordinate Air and Missile Defense Conduct Personnel Recovery Conduct Internment and Resettlement Tasks and Systems Integration Protection Planning Initial Assessments Integrating Processes Protection Priorities Scheme of Protection Development Protection Cell and Working Group Protection in Preparation Protection Considerations Preparation Protection in Execution Protection in Unified Land Operations Protection Considerations Execution Protection Assessment Continuous Assessment Lessons-Learned Integration Protection Considerations Assessment Unified Land Operations I.
Unified Land Operations Defined Unified land operations describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolution ADP An Operational Environment An operational environment is a composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the deci- sions of the commander JP Commanders at all levels have their own operational environments for their particular operations.
An operational envi- ronment for any specific operation is not just isolated conditions of interacting variables that exist within a specific area of operations. It also involves inter- connected influences from the global or regional perspective for example, politics and economics that impact on conditions and operations there.
Likewise, operational environments of commanders at all levels are part of the overall strategic environment, which encompasses general conditions, circumstances, and influences throughout the world that can affect all operations. Important trends such as globalization, urbanization, and failed or failing states can affect land operations.
These trends can drive instability in an operational environment as well as a continuing state of persistent conflict. Persistent conflict is the protracted confrontation among state, non-state, and individual actors who are increasingly willing to use violence to achieve their political and ideological ends. In such an operational environment, command- ers must seek opportunities for exploiting success. Opportunities may include greater cooperation among the local populace of a town, or perhaps the ability to advance forces along a previously unsecured route. To successfully exploit opportunities, commanders must thoroughly understand and appreciate the changing nature of an operational environment.
Modern information technology makes cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum indispensable for human interaction, including military operations and political competition. These two mediums inherently impact the influence of an operational environment and will be simultaneously congested and con- tested during operations. All actors—enemy, friendly, or neutral—remain po- tentially vulnerable to attack by physical means, cyberspace means, electronic means, or a combination thereof. Actions in and through cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum can affect the others.
An operational environment consists of many interrelated variables and sub- variables, as well as the relationships and interactions among those variables and subvariables. How the many entities and conditions behave and interact with each other within an operational environment is difficult to discern and Chap1Chap1 Operations I. Sam ple The doctrine of unified land operations describes how the Army demonstrates its core competencies of combined arm maneuver and wide area security through decisive action.
The term decisive action replaces the term full spectrum operations as the concept of continuous, simultaneous offense, defense, stability, or de- fense support of civil authorities. Defense support of civil authorities replaces civil support as a task under decisive action. ADRP expands the discussion of the foundations and tenets of unified land operations, as well as the operational framework found in ADP Additional changes in ADRP from the now obsolete FM , Change 1, includes a discussion of the range of military operations replacing the spectrum of conflict as well as a discussion of information collection replacing intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance known as ISR.
These changes in ADRP now better align Army doctrine with the joint discussion of the principles of joint operations. ADRP remains generally consistent with the now obsolete FM , Change 1, on key topics while adopting updated terminology and concepts as necessary. These topics include the discussion of an operational environment and the operational and mission variables, as well as the discussions of unified action, law of land warfare, and combat power.
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As in the now obsolete , FM , Change 1, mission command remains both a philosophy of command and a war fighting function. ADRP contains four chapters: Chapter 1 Chapter 1 shortens the discussion of the operational environment found on the now obso- lete FM , Change 1, and emphasizes military operations.
This chapter provides a framework of variables of an operational environment that shape their nature and affect outcomes. The chapter then discusses unified action and joint operations as well as land operations.
Finally, this chapter discusses law of land warfare and combined arms. Chapter 3 Chapter 3 discusses combat power and the war fighting functions used to generate combat power in support of unified land operations. As in the now obsolete FM , Change 1, chapter 3 discusses the eight elements of combat power that include the six war fighting functions with leadership and information. Lastly, it discusses how Army forc- es achieve combined arms through force tailoring, task organization, and mutual support.
Chapter 4 Chapter 4 discusses the elements of operational art and the meaning of operational art to Army forces. It elaborates on commanders and staffs applying the elements of operational art to understand, visualize, and describe how to establish conditions to achieve a desired end state.
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It discusses how operational art represents a creative approach to dealing with the direction of military forces and expresses an informed vision across the levels of war. Military Operations UnifiedLand Operations New and Rescinded Terms Based on current doctrinal changes, certain terms for which ADRP is proponent have been added, rescinded, or modified for purposes of this manual. The glossary contains defined terms. Introductory Table New Army terms Term Remarks.
Rescinded Army terms Term Remarks full spectrum operations Rescinded.
Modified Terms The following terms were either modified, retained based on common English usage but no longer formally defined, or adopted the joint definition. Refer to the glossary defined terms. No longer formally defined. Military Operations UnifiedLand Operations always results in differing circumstances. Different actor or audience types do not interpret a single message in the same way.
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Therefore, no two operational environ- ments are the same. In addition, an operational environment continually evolves. This evolution results from humans interacting within an operational environment as well as from their ability to learn and adapt. As people take action in an operational environment, they change that environment.
Other variables may also change an operational environ- ment.
Some changes are anticipated while others are not. Some changes are im- mediate and apparent while other changes evolve over time or are extremely difficult to detect. The complex and dynamic nature of an operational environment may make deter- mining the relationship between cause and effect difficult and may contribute to the uncertainty of military operations. Commanders must continually assess and reas- sess their operational environments.
They seek a greater understanding of how the changing nature of threats and other variables affect not only their forces but other actors as well. Commanders with their staffs use the Army design methodology, operational variables, and mission variables to analyze an operational environment in support of the operations process.
Operational and Mission Variables An operational environment for each operation differs and evolves as each operation progresses. Army leaders use operational variables to analyze and understand a specific operational environment in which they are conducting operations. They use mission variables to focus on specific elements of an operational environment during mission analysis. Operational variables are those aspects of an operational environment, both military and nonmilitary, that may differ from one operational area to another and affect operations.
Army planners analyze an operational environment in terms of eight interrelated opera- tional variables: political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and time PMESII-PT. As soon as a commander and staff have an indication of where their unit will probably deploy, they begin analyzing the operational variables associated with that location.
They continue to refine and up- date that analysis even after receiving a specific mission and throughout the course of the ensuing operation. Mission Variables METT-TC Upon receipt of a warning order or mission, Army leaders filter relevant information categorized by the operational variables into the categories of the mission vari- ables used during mission analysis.
They use the mission variables to refine their understanding of the situation. The mission variables consist of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations METT-TC. Incorporating the analysis of the operational variables with METT-TC ensures Army leaders consider the best available relevant information about conditions that pertain to the mission. The operations process p. Unified Land Operations Unified land operations describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initia- tive to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolu- tion.
See pp. As military forces synchronize actions, they achieve unity of effort. Unified action includes actions of military forces synchronized with activities of other government agencies, nongovernmental and intergovernmental organiza- tions, and the private sector. Military forces play a key role in unified action before, during, and after operations through engagement. Army forces coordinate operations with unified action partners.see url
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Unified action partners are those military forces, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and elements of the private sector with whom Army forces plan, coordinate, synchronize, and integrate during the conduct of operations. Unified action partners include joint forces and components, multinational forces, and U. Interagency coordination is inherent in unified action. Within the context of Depart- ment of Defense involvement, interagency coordination is the coordination that occurs between elements of Department of Defense, and engaged US Government agencies and departments for the purpose of achieving an objective JP Army forces conduct and participate in interagency coordination using strategic com- munication and defense support to public diplomacy.